Martial Arts

america | Capoeira

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작성자 WoMAU 작성일11-07-27 3,057회 댓글0건

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Capoeira

Roda de Capoeira

Member Organization(s)

Introduction

Capoeira is an Afro-Brazilian cultural practice simultaneously a fight and a dance that can be interpreted as a tradition, a sport, and even an art form. Capoeira players form a circle at the center of which two players engage with one another. The movements require great bodily dexterity. The other players around the circle sing, chant, clap and play percussive instruments. Capoeira circles are formed by a group of people of any gender and comprise a master, counter-master, and disciples. The master is the bearer and guardian of the knowledge of the circle and is expected to teach the repertoire and to maintain the groups cohesion and its observance to a ritual code. The master usually plays a single-string percussion instrument, starts the chants, and leads the games timing and rhythm. All participants are expected to know how to make and play the instrument, sing a shared repertoire of chants, improvise songs, know and respect the codes of ethics and conduct, and perform the movements, steps, and strikes. The capoeira circle is a place where knowledge and skills are learned by observation and imitation. It also functions as an affirmation of mutual respect between communities, groups, and individuals and promotes social integration and the memory of resistance to historical oppression.

History

It was created by the African people who were capture by the Portuguese and brought to Brazil to be slaves in the 1500s. The slaves were put to work in the field to harvest sugarcane. These slaves created the earliest form of Capoeira to increase their chances of liberty and independence. They disguised the martial art and fighting techniques as a folk dance and when the slave masters were not looking they would practice the self-defense aspect. When the slaves escaped, they fled to small villages which they formed called Quilombos.

On May 13th, 1888 slavery was abolished in Brazil. The Brazilian government feared the ex-slaves would join force and use capoeira to revolt against the government therefore, a ban was put on Capoeira and anyone known practicing Capoeira would be sent to jail. To keep the tradition of Capoeira alive it needed to be practiced secretly and disguised as a folk dance. In their hidden places, they did their best to keep the tradition alive and by presenting it as a folk art it became more accepted by society. Capoeiristas were known only by their nicknames, which made it more difficult for the police to identify and arrest them since their real identities were unknown. This repression had declined by the 1920s.

Capoeira is now a mainstream sport, taught in Brazilian fitness centers, schools, and universities, and practiced by a range of people of different ages, classes, gender, and ethnicity around the world.

References

Capoeira. Wikipedia.

Capoeira Circle. UNESCO ICH.

Capeira History. Capoeira Brazilian Pelourinho.

HISTÓRIA. Grupo Muzenza.

Matthias Rohrig Assuncao. Capoeira: The History of an Afro-Brazilian Martial Art. Taylor & Francis, 2002.

World Martial Arts Museum. Chungju, Korea.

 





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